Common terms and expressions within strength training, nutrition and health.
Table of Contents
When a body part is moved away from the midline of the body seen from the front, e.g. lifting your leg or arm sidewards.
Cardiovascular exercise (“cardio”) – exercise that lasts for a longer period of time, e.g. cycling or running, during which the body uses oxygen. Aerobic respiration occurs throughout the day, as the body transfers energy to the cells.
Muscle that performs the intended movement.
The building block of protein.
Muscular growth – the constructive part of metabolism.
Short-term, high-intensity exercise without use of oxygen, e.g. strength training.
Muscle that performs a movement in the opposite direction to the agonist.
“Branched-Chain Amino Acids” – three of the essential amino acids (EAA) that the body cannot produce on its own: leucine, isoleucine and valine. BCAA is used as a quick source of energy in the muscles during exercise, and affect the neurotransmitters as they transfer impulses between cells.
A supplement that builds an acid buffer as carnosine is stored in the muscles, which may delay exhaustion during exercise. Three to five grams of beta-alanine per day during periods of intense exercise may be a way to do a few more reps during your workouts.
Combining strength training with eating more calories than you need, in order to build muscle mass quickly.
How much energy you need to run the basic chemical reactions in the body, fuel the muscles, brain and other organs and stay warm. One usually refers to daily caloric intake, e.g. how much energy you need per day.
A type of protein that is extracted from cow milk, and that is absorbed slowly. Protein powder made of casein may be superior than whey protein if you want to keep your muscle protein synthesis high for a longer period of time.
Muscular breakdown – the degradative part of metabolism.
A type of protein that can be found in your bones, tendons, joints, ligaments and skin.
Concentric Muscle Action
The muscle (agonist) shortens, which generates force.
The muscle fibers shorten, creating tension in the muscle, which generates force.
A naturally occurring compound that is stored in the muscles and used as energy during anaerobic exercise. Supplementation of creatine has been proved to increase performance during repeated, high-intense exercise, improve recovery and boost muscle hypertrophy.
Daily Undulating Periodization (DUP)
To periodize your workouts throughout the week, by alternating between heavier and lighter workouts.
“Essential Amino Acids” – nine amino acids that cannot be synthesized in the body.
A stretching movement, that increases the angle between two body parts.
A joint is rotated outwards, away from the midline of the body, e.g. moving the thigh outwards, so that the knee points towards the side.
The part of your bodyweight that is not fat, but muscles, skeleton, organs etc.
An easily accessible source of carbohydrates that is stored in the liver and the muscles, and is used to fuel the body.
Refers to the movement where your thigh is moved sideways, or the thighs are moved away from each other.
The hip joint is extended as the thigh moves backwards.
HMB, or β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, is a metabolite of the branched-chain amino acid leucine. HMB has been shown to have a positive effect on muscle protein turnover, and might be beneficial as a supplement during periods of muscle-wasting illnesses and stress.
When the muscle/muscle fibre grows, and increases in size.
Load. Is commonly specified as % of 1RM (see RM).
When you plan your meals so that you do not eat during specific periods, e.g. two days a week, or before twelve o clock.
Kilocalorie, or 1000 calories – a unit of energy that is used to measure how much energy food contains.
Sources of nourishment that supply you with energy, such as carbohydrates, fat, protein, fibers and alcohol.
The strain that a muscle fiber has to bear during exercise. When a muscle fiber is maximally activated against heavy resistance, the mechanical tension is high.
When a muscle fiber is fatigued or uses so much energy that its surrounding environment changes, creating metabolic byproducts or decreasing intramuscular pH, for example.
Sources of nourishment that are essential to keep the body functioning, but are not needed in as big proportions as macronutrients, e.g. vitamins, minerals, trace elements and other bioactive substances such as antioxidants.
When a muscle works. There are three types of muscle action: 1. concentric (the muscle shortens), 2. isometric (the length of the muscle does not change) and 3. eccentric (the muscle extends).
How many muscle fibers that are used during muscle action.
Larger or microscopical injuries within the muscle. Microscopical damage usually appears after strength training, and is repaired the following days.
A cluster of muscles that are located close to each other, and have similar functions.
When the muscle mass increases. Muscle growth happens when your muscle protein synthesis exceeds your muscle protein breakdown.
A muscle consists of protein, and protein consists of amino acids.
Muscle Protein Synthesis
The process of building muscle protein, which happens all the time, but increases when you lift weights or eat protein.
A training technique that allows you to fatigue the muscle, and create a high level of metabolic stress. It is a type of rest-pause training – you perform a long set of an exercise, with mini-pauses between the reps.
The interaction between your muscles and your nervous system.
Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT)
Physical activity other than working out – movement in your everyday life, such as walking up the stairs or rise up from the couch.
A sport that consists of two lifts: snatch, and clean and jerk.
Planned variation of your workout program: alternating exercises, training volume or load, for example.
A sport that consists of three lifts: squat, bench press and deadlift.
Advancing in your training by gradually increasing the load – by doing an extra rep, an extra set or add weight.
To recoup to previous capacity.
Is abbreviated to “reps”, and refers to completing the entire movement of an exercise. One repetition usually consists of a concentric movement and an eccentric movement.
Abbreviation for “Repetition Maximum”, and refers to the maximum amount of repetitions that can be performed at a specific weight. 1RM is the heaviest weight that you can lift one time, and one time only. 10RM is the heaviest weight that you can lift ten times, but not eleven, and so on.
More variation, through a combination of different tastes and textures, in what we eat gives us more appetite, meaning that we are going to eat more before we feel satisfied.
A cluster of repetitions, usually performed without rest.
Training that aims to resemble the activities within the sport you perform.
To build strength. You can gain strength in three ways: 1. grow bigger muscles, so that more muscle fibers contract against the resistance, 2. the muscle and tendons becomes stiffer, transferring the force more efficiently and 3. neuromuscular improvements that result in higher and more efficient muscle activity.
Alternating between two exercises, with or without rest between the exercises.
A muscle that assists the agonist, but is not a prime mover.
How often you exercise – usually specified as workouts per week.
How much you exercise during a period of time – usually specified as total weight (in kg or lbs) you have lifted, or the amount of set you have performed.
Alternating between three exercises, with our without rest between the exercises.
Free from animal products.
Protein that is extracted from cow milk, and rapidly absorbed in the muscles. The amino acids in whey protein kan be used to build muscle protein, since they stimulate muscle protein synthesis.